How we change what others think, feel, believe and do
If X follows Y, then X is caused by Y.
The sequence of things proves cause.
The man pulled out a gun. A shot was fired. Therefore the man fired the shot.
You used the telephone and then it stopped working. You broke the phone.
I am feeling very unwell. It must have been the meal last night.
Just because something follows something else, this is not sufficient evidence to prove true cause and effect. This temporal relationship may simply be coincidence.
Coincidence is often related to superstition -- hence saying 'bless you' when someone sneezes (it is assumed that sneezing lays a person open to spiritual attack) or throwing salt over your shoulder when you spill it (it is assumed to cause bad luck otherwise).
Also known as
Post hoc, ergo propter hoc (after this, therefore because of this)