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That's Not All (TNA)


Techniques General Persuasion > Sequential Requests > That's Not All (TNA)

Description | Example | Discussion | See also



When offering or conceding something to somebody, rather than give it to them as a final item, give it in incremental pieces. Do not allow them to respond to each piece you give them -- keep on offering more.

Thus, for example, you can:

  • Offer a discount in several stages.
  • Add extra 'gifts' to a product offering.
  • Start with a high price and reduce it.
  • Tell them all the things you are going to do, one at a time.

The increments can be in different amounts, but each should surprise and delight the person. It can also help if the final increment is particularly desirable.


 Ladies and gentlemen, I'm not only going to reduce this by 10%, not even by 20% and not even by 40%. Today, ladies and gentlemen,  the price is reduced for you by a whopping 50%!

I'm not going to give you this cookie cutter. No. That's not all I'm going to give you. For the same price, I'm going to throw in a fine steel spatula. A bargain I hear you say? But I'm going to make it even better, with this splendid temperature probe, absolutely free. Now, who wants this wonderful offer now?

Mr Jones, you've been treated badly and I'm going to make sure you're ok today. First, I'm going to call the service team. Then I'm going to talk to the manager and then I'll get him to call you today. Is this ok for you?


This technique is reminiscent of the highball tactic in that it starts with high and comes down. The only difference is that the 'that's not all' method does not do this in negotiated concessions.

It can, however, seem like a negotiation. Burger (1986) found that this technique works partly because a customer sees the salesperson as entering into a type of negotiation by offering an additional product. With each increment, the customer feels an increasing obligation to purchase the product in return for the salesperson's 'concessions'.

In Burger's experiment, he sold a cupcake with two cookies together for 75 cents (this was the control) or stated the price of cupcake was 75 cents and then added two cookies 'for free' (TNA). Successful sales in the control were 40%, whilst in the TNA case they were 73%.

In a second experiment, Burger showed it going the other way, either selling the cupcakes straight for 75 cents (the control) or starting at one dollar and then immediately discounting to 75 cents (the TNA case). Successful sales in the control were 44% whilst in the TNA case were again 73%.

The method depends largely on an automatic social response and hence works better when the customer does not have time to think hard about what is going on.

See also

Exchange principle, Contrast principle

Burger, J. M. (1986). Increasing compliance by improving the deal: The that's not all technique. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 51, 277-283

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