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Job analysis

 

Disciplines > Human Resources > Job analysis

Work-oriented methods | Worker-oriented methods | Potential problems | See also

 

Job analysis is the process whereby jobs are investigated in sufficient detail to enable (a) recruitment of people into them or (b) assessment of the performance of people who are already working in them.

Work-oriented methods

The principle of work-orientation is to understand the job that is done in terms of the outcomes and the activities used to achieve those outcomes. Work-oriented methods can be used both work improvement, job definition and also for recruitment.

Worker-oriented methods

Worker-oriented methods are focused on the person and their experience and perception.

Potential problems

The information you get from job analysis may not be as good as you hoped, firstly in its accuracy and consequently how stable it is over time.

Accuracy

Accuracy of response may be affected by a number of issues, including:

  • The informant may not tell the truth (eg. idealizing, giving what you want, fear of consequences).
  • The organizational context shapes how job is done.
  • Distortions may affect perceptions of job for personal or political reasons.
  • Errors of misunderstanding may occur (cognitive).
    • Not understanding the job.
    • Over-emphasis on similarities, missing differences.
    • Confirmation by assessors of their stereotype of the role.
    • Availability heuristic, etc.
  • Job not being done properly (behavioral).
  • Personal motivations (affective).

Stability

A number of items may affect the stability of the job detail, including:

  • Seasonality (some jobs change over time)
  • Technology effects, automating and sometimes complexifying.
  • Employee-determined changes, eg. ‘improvements’.
  • Environmental factors, such as laws, business climate, etc.

See also

Social Research

 

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