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Function and leadership

 

Disciplines > Leadership > Leadership actions > Function and leadership

 

One approach to leadership identifies the fact that leaders play many roles within an organization. Hence what the leader does may well depend on the functions that the leader is performing at the time.

Krech et al (1962) identified fourteen functions that the leader may take:

 

Leader's function Actions
Executive Coordinating group activities and overseeing the setting of policies and goals.
Planner Deciding how the group will achieve its goals.
Policy maker Establishing policies and goals.
Expert A source of expert information.
External group representative Speaking for the group with others.
Controller of internal relationships Determining the social structure of the group.
Purveyor of rewards and punishment Controlling members by punishing and rewarding.
Arbitrator and mediator Resolving disputes in the group.
Exemplar Behaving in a way that others should behave.
Symbol of the group Acting as symbolic embodiment of the group, its goals and its values.
Substitute for individual responsibility Relieving individuals of the need and responsibility of personal decisions.
Ideologist Being the source of beliefs and values.
Father figure Focus for positive emotional feelings of individuals and the object for identification and transference.
Scapegoat Acting as a target for aggression and hostility. Taking the blame on behalf of the group.

See also

Krech, D., Crutchfield, R.S., and Ballachey, E.L. (1962). Individual in society, NY:McGraw-Hill

 

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