|Sun Tzu said:
|8. The skillful
soldier does not raise a second levy, neither are his supply-wagons
loaded more than twice.
||Taxes at home to pay
for wars are not popular and not good for morale. It is better to
find other ways.
Also, once war is declared, a strong army does
not wait for reinforcements or supplies but uses surprise to quickly
invade, creating momentum and gaining immediate ground.
In business, once you have secured a budget for
marketing and sales, you should use that or find funds elsewhere,
rather than going back, cap in hand.
|9. Bring war material
with you from home, but forage on the enemy. Thus the army will have
food enough for its needs.
||It is always better
to use your own weapons which you know well.
For food and other
supplies, it can be very helpful if you can capture these from your
In business, this could translate into such as winning getting
government funding and support away from competitors.
|10. Poverty of the
State exchequer causes an army to be maintained by contributions
from a distance. Contributing to maintain an army at a distance
causes the people to be impoverished.
||If the state does not
have money to sustain the army, they must find funds from people in
the country via various levies and donations. This is not a good way
to fight the war as it weakens the morale and capability of the home
|11. On the other
hand, the proximity of an army causes prices to go up; and high
prices cause the people's substance to be drained away.
||If the army has to
buy provisions from other countries, then the additional demand on
limited resource will make the price go up. Merchants may also take
advantage of an army who has no other alternative.
When the army
buys provisions and when prices go up, those who would normally buy
those same provisions may find they cannot afford the new prices and
so start to dislike the army that they might once have admired.
|12. When their
substance is drained away, the peasantry will be afflicted by heavy
||Exaction is 'an act
of demanding or levying by force or authority'. Those with little
often suffer most in wartime.
|13,14. With this loss
of substance and exhaustion of strength, the homes of the people
will be stripped bare, and three-tenths of their income will be
dissipated; while government expenses for broken chariots, worn-out
horses, breast-plates and helmets, bows and arrows, spears and
shields, protective mantles, draught-oxen and heavy wagons, will
amount to four-tenths of its total revenue.
||Here is an estimation
tool for what may be the unseen cost of warfare in the time of Sun
Tzu. What is it now for you?
Understand the wider costs, quantifying these where possible.
|15. Hence a wise
general makes a point of foraging on the enemy. One cartload of the
enemy's provisions is equivalent to twenty of one's own, and
likewise a single picul of his provender is equivalent to twenty
from one's own store.
||It is better to take
the food destined for the enemy's troops than the food from the
people in the lands you pass through or have to sustain long supply
This not only helps non-combatants but it also weakens the
enemy. The motivational effects of this are significant.
picul is equal to 133.3 pounds or 65.5 kilograms).