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Hall's cultural factors


Explanations > Culture > Hall's cultural factors

Time | Context | Space | So what?


Edward T. Hall was an anthropologist who made early discoveries of key cultural factors. In particular he is known for his high and low context cultural factors.


High context

In a high-context culture, there are many contextual elements that help people to understand the rules. As a result, much is taken for granted.

This can be very confusing for person who does not understand the 'unwritten rules' of the culture.

Low context

In a low-context culture, very little is taken for granted. Whilst this means that more explanation is needed, it also means there is less chance of misunderstanding particularly when visitors are present.

Contrasting the two

French contracts tend to be short (in physical length, not time duration) as much of the information is available within the high-context French culture. American content, on the other hand, is low-context and so contracts tend to be longer in order to explain the detail.

Highly mobile environments where people come and go need lower-context culture. With a stable population, however, a higher context culture may develop.

Note the similarity with Trompenaars' Universalism (low context) and Particularism (high context).



 High-context culture

 Low-context culture

Overtness of messages Many covert and implicit messages, with use of metaphor and reading between the lines. Many overt and explicit messages that are simple and clear.
 Locus of control and attribution for failure Inner locus of control and personal acceptance for
 Outer locus of control and blame of others for failure
 Use of non-verbal communication  Much nonverbal communication More focus on verbal communication than body language
Expression of reaction Reserved, inward reactions Visible, external, outward reaction
Cohesion and separation of groups Strong diistinction  between ingroup and outgroup. Strong  sense of family. Flexible and open grouping patterns, changing as needed
 People bonds Strong people bonds with affiliation to family and community Fragile bonds between people with little sense of loyalty.
Level of commitment to relationships  High commitment to long-term relationships.
Relationship more important than task.
 Low commitment to relationship. Task more important than relationships.
Flexibility of time

Time is open and flexible.
Process is more important than product
Time is highly organized.
Product is more important than process


Monochronic time

M-Time, as he called it, means doing one thing at a time. It assumes careful planning and scheduling and is a familiar Western approach that appears in disciplines such as 'time management'.

Monochronic people tend also to be low context.

Polychronic time

In Polychronic cultures, human interaction is valued over time and material things, leading to a lesser concern for 'getting things done' -- they do get done, but more in their own time.

Aboriginal and Native Americans have typical polychronic cultures, where 'talking stick' meetings can go on for as long as somebody has something to say.

Polychronic people tend also to be high context.

Contrasting the two

Western cultures vary in their focus on monochronic or polychronic time. Americans are strongly monochronic whilst the French have a much greater polychronic tendency -- thus a French person may turn up to a meeting late and think nothing of it (much to the annoyance of a German or American co-worker).

Note the similarity with Trompenaars' time as sequence (monochronic) and time as synchronization (polychronic).


Factor Monochronic action Polychronic action
Actions do one thing at a time do many things at once
Focus Concentrate on the job at hand Are easily distracted
Attention to time Think about when things must be achieved Think about what will be achieved
Priority Put the job first Put relationships first
Respect for property Seldom borrow or lend things Borrow and lend things often and easily
Timeliness Emphasize promptness base promptness relationship factors



Hall was concerned about space and our relationships within it. He called the study of such space Proxemics.

We have concerns about space in many situations, from personal body space to space in the office, parking space, space at home.

The need for space

Some people need more space in all areas. People who encroach into that space are seen as a threat.

Personal space is an example of a mobile form of territory and people need less or greater distances between them and others. A Japanese person who needs less space thus will stand closer to an American, inadvertently making the American uncomfortable.

Some people need bigger homes, bigger cars, bigger offices and so on. This may be driven by cultural factors, for example the space in America needs to greater use of space, whilst Japanese need less space (partly as a result of limited useful space in Japan).

High territoriality

Some people are more territorial than others with greater concern for ownership. They seek to mark out the areas which are theirs and perhaps having boundary wars with neighbors.

This happens right down to desk-level, where co-workers may do battle over a piece of paper which overlaps from one person's area to another. At national level, many wars have been fought over boundaries.

Territoriality also extends to anything that is 'mine' and ownership concerns extend to material things. Security thus becomes a subject of great concern for people with a high need for ownership.

People high territoriality tend also to be low context.

Low territoriality

People with lower territoriality have less ownership of space and boundaries are less important to them. They will share territory and ownership with little thought.

They also have less concern for material ownership and their sense of 'stealing' is less developed (this is more important for highly territorial people).

People with low territoriality tend also to be high context.


Australian Aboriginal people will say that they belong to the land rather than the other way around. Before we scotch this, we should remember that they have thrived in harsh conditions for thousands of years. Western society, on the other hand has shown much barbarity over ownership of land.

So what?

When working across cultures, pay attention to high and low cultures through the actions of others. For example if people are late for meetings it may be because they are polychronic, not because they are disrespectful or lazy.

When you understand the personal, national or organizational culture, then you can seek to align with them and hence gain greater influence.


Hall, E.T. (1959). The Silent Language, New York: Doubleday

Hall, E.T. (1966). The Hidden Dimension, New York: Doubleday

Hall, E.T. (1976). Beyond Culture, New York: Doubleday

Hall, E.T. (1983). The Dance of Life, The Other Dimension of Time, New York: Doubleday

Hall, E.T. (1985). Hidden Differences: Studies in International Communication, Hamburg: Grunder and Jahr

Hall, E.T. (1990). Hidden Differences: Doing Business with the Japanese, Garden City, NY: Anchor Press/ Doubleday

Hall, E.T. (1990). Understanding Cultural Differences, Germans, French and Americans, Yarmouth: Intercultural Press

See also

The Managerial Grid, Trompenaars' and Hampden-Turner's cultural factors

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