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Cramer's V

 

Explanations > Social ResearchAnalysis > Cramer's V

Description | Example | Discussion | See also

 

Description

Cramer's V is a way of calculating correlation in tables which have more than 2x2 rows and columns. It is used as post-test to determine strengths of association after chi-square has determined significance. 

V is calculated by first calculating chi-square, then using the following calculation:

 

V = SQRT( c2 / (n (k - 1)) )

where c2 is chi-square and k is the number of rows or columns in the table.

Discussion

Chi-square says that there is a significant relationship between variables, but it does not say just how significant and important this is. Cramer's V is a post-test to give this additional information.

Cramer's V varies between 0 and 1. Close to 0 it shows little association between variables. Close to 1, it indicates a strong association.

Where the table is 2 x 2, use Phi.

Cramer's V is named after the Swedish mathematician and statistician Harald Cramér.

See also

Phi Correlation, Chi-square test

Cramér, H. (1999). Mathematical Methods of Statistics, Princeton University Press

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