Albert Ellis, in his Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy (REBT), identified
a number of dysfunctional beliefs that people often hold.
Here are irrational beliefs that Ellis described:
It is a dire necessity for adult humans to be loved or approved by
virtually every significant other person in their community.
One absolutely must be competent, adequate and achieving in all important
respects or else one is an inadequate, worthless person.
People absolutely must act considerately and fairly and they are damnable
villains if they do not. They are their bad acts.
It is awful and terrible when things are not the way one would very much
like them to be.
Emotional disturbance is mainly externally caused and people have little
or no ability to increase or decrease their dysfunctional feelings and behaviors.
If something is or may be dangerous or fearsome, then one should be
constantly and excessively concerned about it and should keep dwelling on the
possibility of it occurring.
One cannot and must not face life's responsibilities and difficulties and
it is easier to avoid them.
One must be quite dependent on others and need them and you cannot mainly
run one's own life.
One's past history is an all-important determiner of one's present behavior and because something once strongly affected one's life, it should
indefinitely have a similar effect.
Other people's disturbances are horrible and one must feel upset about
There is invariably a right, precise and perfect solution to human
problems and it is awful if this perfect solution is not found.
Ellis's belief are deliberately extreme, to highlight that we often take
unreasonably exaggerated viewpoints. He called this approach 'awfulizing', as we
tend to pessimistically generalize these things.
A way this can happen is that, if we have a strong
need for certainty, we will tend to push
perceptions towards the extremes when we actually should be considering them along a variable spectrum. Thus, we create stereotypes
So if you want to help the other person adopt more functional beliefs, help
them first realize how extreme and irrational their generalized beliefs are.
Then discuss with them how more rational and useful beliefs can be found.
Ellis, A. (1994). Reason and Emotion in Psychotherapy, NY: Birch Lane