changingminds.org

How we change what others think, feel, believe and do

| Menu | Quick | Books | Share | Search | Settings |

Seratonin

 

Explanations > Brains > Brain Chemistry > Neurotransmitters > Seratonin

Composition | Function | Dysfunction | See also

 

Seratonin, or 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), is a monoamine. Its adjective is serotonergic.

Composition

Chemically, seratonin is created in seratonergic neurons in the CNS.

Serotonin is synthesized from tryptophan by the enzyme tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH), which produces 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) and then the action of 5-HTP decarboxylase to create 5-HT.

Sertonergic neurons are mostly found in the raphe nuclei of midbrain, pons and medulla.

There are nine types of seratonergic receptors with varying effect, for example 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D are presynaptic autoreceptors. All receptors are metabotropic, except for the ionotropic 5-HT1A.

Function

Seratonin provides a wide range of control of emotions and the body, including anger, aggression, body temperature, pain, mood, sleep, dreaming, human sexuality, appetite, and metabolism. It also stimulates vomiting.

A common pattern in some seratonin-involved activities appears to be compulsion and urge. In other words, seratonin motivates. Happy people are motivated and so create seratonin, rather than, as is sometimes thought, that happiness is caused by seratonin, though elevated levels can lead to happiness through the motivating effect.

Seratonin has also been linked with contentment and satisfaction. Sadness is related to a lack of seratonin.

Dysfunction

Drugs

There are drugs that are amplifying agonist and blocking antagonist for all types of serotonergic receptors.

p-chlorophenyalanine (PCPA) is an antagonist, blocking the effect of TPH.

Fluoxetine (Prozac) inhibits reupdate of seratonin and is used in treatment of depression, anxiety and 

Fenfluramine stimulates the release of seratonin and is used as an appetite suppressant in treating obesity.

Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a narcotic that distorts hallucinogenic visual perception is a direct agonist of 5-HT2A receptors in the forebrain.

Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) or 'Ecstasy' has excitatory and hallucinogenic and is an agonist for both seratonin and norepinephrine. It makes noradrenergic and serotonergic transporters to operate backwards, increasing neurotransmitter release and inhibiting reupdate. MDMA action on sertonoergic transporters causes hallucinations but can also damage them.

See also

Norepinephrine, Attraction vs. Avoidance Preference

 

Site Menu

| Home | Top | Quick Links | Settings |

Main sections: | Disciplines | Techniques | Principles | Explanations | Theories |

Other sections: | Blog! | Quotes | Guest articles | Analysis | Books | Help |

More pages: | Contact | Caveat | About | Students | Webmasters | Awards | Guestbook | Feedback | Sitemap | Changes |

Settings: | Computer layout | Mobile layout | Small font | Medium font | Large font | Translate |

 

 

Please help and share:

 

Quick links

Disciplines

* Argument
* Brand management
* Change Management
* Coaching
* Communication
* Counseling
* Game Design
* Human Resources
* Job-finding
* Leadership
* Marketing
* Politics
* Propaganda
* Rhetoric
* Negotiation
* Psychoanalysis
* Sales
* Sociology
* Storytelling
* Teaching
* Warfare
* Workplace design

Techniques

* Assertiveness
* Body language
* Change techniques
* Closing techniques
* Conversation
* Confidence tricks
* Conversion
* Creative techniques
* General techniques
* Happiness
* Hypnotism
* Interrogation
* Language
* Listening
* Negotiation tactics
* Objection handling
* Propaganda
* Problem-solving
* Public speaking
* Questioning
* Using repetition
* Resisting persuasion
* Self-development
* Sequential requests
* Storytelling
* Stress Management
* Tipping
* Using humor
* Willpower

Principles

+ Principles

Explanations

* Behaviors
* Beliefs
* Brain stuff
* Conditioning
* Coping Mechanisms
* Critical Theory
* Culture
* Decisions
* Emotions
* Evolution
* Gender
* Games
* Groups
* Habit
* Identity
* Learning
* Meaning
* Memory
* Motivation
* Models
* Needs
* Personality
* Power
* Preferences
* Research
* Relationships
* SIFT Model
* Social Research
* Stress
* Trust
* Values

Theories

* Alphabetic list
* Theory types

And

About
Guest Articles
Blog!
Books
Changes
Contact
Guestbook
Quotes
Students
Webmasters

 

| Home | Top | Menu | Quick Links |

© Changing Works 2002-2016
Massive Content — Maximum Speed