How we change what others think, feel, believe and do
Mumford (1976) assumed that employees did not simply see their job as a means to an end by had needs which related to the nature of their work.
1. Knowledge needs
Work that utilizes their knowledge and skills.
To do a job, employees need several kinds of knowledge, including:
2. Psychological needs
As with all people, employees have inner human needs such as recognition, responsibility, status and advancement.
A problem that can occur is where employers treat their people as machines to be commanded and ignore their psychological needs.
3. Task needs
We have needs around what we do, including having meaningful work and some degree of autonomy to be able to achieve success under our own steam.
4. Moral needs
Related to psychological needs, we have the need to be treated as intelligent and valued people. In other words, employers should treat employees in the way they would themselves wish to be treated.