changingminds.org

How we change what others think, feel, believe and do

| Menu | Quick | Books | Share | Search | Settings |

Four Types

 

Explanations > Preferences > Four Types

History | Type 1 | Type 2 | Type 3 | Type 4So what?

 

History

Since the days of the Greek civilization, philosophers and scholars have been classifying people into four categories which, perhaps unsurprisingly, have remarkable similarities.

 

System

Date Type 1 Type 2 Type 3 Type 4
Empedocles ~450BC Fire Air Water Earth
Plato ~420BC Guardian Artisan Philosopher Scientist
Hippocrates ~400BC Yellow bile Blood Phlegm Black bile
Galen ~150AD Choleric Sanguine Phlegmatic Melancholy
... ... ... ... ... ...
DISC 1920s Dominant  Influential Steady Cautious
Kretschner 1920s Melancholic Hypomanic Anasthetic Hyperasthetic
Sprangler 1930s Religious Aesthetic Theoretic Economic
Jungian 1940s NF SP NT SJ
Enneagram 1950s Adventurer Achiever Helper Romantic Peacemaker Observer Asserter Perfectionist
Kiersey 1960s Idealist Artisan Rational Guardian
Drucker 1970s Action man Front man People man Thought man
Social Styles 1980s Driver Expressive Amiable Analytical
LIFO 1990s Controlling-taking Adapting-dealing Supporting-giving Conserving-holding
DESA 1990s Driver Expressive Solid Analytical
Handy 1990s Apollo Dionysus Athena Zeus

 

Type 1

Achieves sense of control through direct action that aligns things to create harmony and reduce dissonance. Looks out to the future to seek necessary actions.

Achieves sense of identity through inspiring others to align with their beliefs.

Critical values include alignment, harmony, perfection.

Type 2

Achieves sense of control through exploration and problem-solving.

Achieves sense of identity through independence and standing out.

Critical values include freedom, innovation, risk-taking.

Type 3

Achieves sense of control through analysis and understanding.

Achieves sense of identity through designing and creating.

Critical values include rationality and originality.

Type 4

Achieves sense of control through making changes that affects others.

Achieves sense of identity through expression and inspiring others.

Critical values include harmony, vision.

So what?

Use the system in teams and groups to share information with one another and hence become more open.

See also

Jungian Type Inventory, DISC Types

Site Menu

| Home | Top | Quick Links | Settings |

Main sections: | Disciplines | Techniques | Principles | Explanations | Theories |

Other sections: | Blog! | Quotes | Guest articles | Analysis | Books | Help |

More pages: | Contact | Caveat | About | Students | Webmasters | Awards | Guestbook | Feedback | Sitemap | Changes |

Settings: | Computer layout | Mobile layout | Small font | Medium font | Large font | Translate |

 

 

Please help and share:

 

Quick links

Disciplines

* Argument
* Brand management
* Change Management
* Coaching
* Communication
* Counseling
* Game Design
* Human Resources
* Job-finding
* Leadership
* Marketing
* Politics
* Propaganda
* Rhetoric
* Negotiation
* Psychoanalysis
* Sales
* Sociology
* Storytelling
* Teaching
* Warfare
* Workplace design

Techniques

* Assertiveness
* Body language
* Change techniques
* Closing techniques
* Conversation
* Confidence tricks
* Conversion
* Creative techniques
* General techniques
* Happiness
* Hypnotism
* Interrogation
* Language
* Listening
* Negotiation tactics
* Objection handling
* Propaganda
* Problem-solving
* Public speaking
* Questioning
* Using repetition
* Resisting persuasion
* Self-development
* Sequential requests
* Storytelling
* Stress Management
* Tipping
* Using humor
* Willpower

Principles

+ Principles

Explanations

* Behaviors
* Beliefs
* Brain stuff
* Conditioning
* Coping Mechanisms
* Critical Theory
* Culture
* Decisions
* Emotions
* Evolution
* Gender
* Games
* Groups
* Habit
* Identity
* Learning
* Meaning
* Memory
* Motivation
* Models
* Needs
* Personality
* Power
* Preferences
* Research
* Relationships
* SIFT Model
* Social Research
* Stress
* Trust
* Values

Theories

* Alphabetic list
* Theory types

And

About
Guest Articles
Blog!
Books
Changes
Contact
Guestbook
Quotes
Students
Webmasters

 

| Home | Top | Menu | Quick Links |

© Changing Works 2002-2016
Massive Content — Maximum Speed