Fallacies: alphabetic list (full list)
> Argument > Fallacies alphabetic list
Fallacies are statements that are logically false, but which often appear to
be true. Here are most of the known fallacies, in alphabetic order (see also
the unique list of fallacies, which is
shortened by removing the alternative names):
- Absurd Extrapolation: see Slippery Slope
- Abusive Ad Hominem: see Attack the person
- Accent: Emphasis that changes the meaning of the
- Accident: A general rule used to explain a
specific case not covered by it.
- Ad Antiquitatem: see Appeal to Tradition
- Ad Baculum: see Appeal to Fear
- Ad Hominem: see Attack the person
- Ad Hominem Abusive: see Attack the person
- Ad Hominem Tu Quoque: See Personal
- Ad Ignorantium: see Argument from Ignorance
- Ad Metum: see Appeal to Fear
- Ad Misericordiam: see Appeal to Pity
- Ad Nauseum: see Repetition
- Ad Novitam: see Appeal to Novelty
- Ad Numeram: see Appeal to Common Practice
- Ad Populum: see Appeal to Common Belief or
- Ad Ridiculum: see Appeal to Ridicule
- Ad Verecundiam: see Appeal to Authority
- Affirming the Consequent: If A then
B. B is true, so A is true.
- Alleged Certainty: see Assertion
Anger: Using anger as a weapon.
- Amphibology: see Amphiboly
- Amphiboly: A sentence has two different
- Appeal to Authority: Referencing an
- Appeal to Belief: see Appeal to Common Belief.
- Appeal to Common Belief: If others believe
it to be true, it must be true.
- Appeal to Common Practice: If others do
it, it must be ok to do it too.
- Appeal to Consequences of a Belief: see
- Appeal to Emotion: If it feels good, it
must be true.
- Appeal to Fear: Gaining compliance through
Flattery: Make them feel good.
- Appeal to Force: see Appeal to Fear
- Appeal to Ignorance: see Argument from
- Appeal to Majority: see Common Belief
- Argument from
Ignorance: Accepting circumstantial evidence.
- Appeal to Novelty: Newer is better.
- Appeal to Pity: Going for the sympathy vote.
- Appeal to Popularity: see Appeal to Common Belief
- Appeal to Ridicule: Mocking the other
Appeal to Spite: Play on their negative feelings
- Appeal to Sympathy: see Appeal to Pity
- Appeal to Tradition: It has always been
done this way, so this way is right.
Appeal to Trust: Trust me, I'm a doctor.
- Argument from Ignorance: Accepting
- Assertion: What I say is true.
- Attack the Person:
Distracting them from their argument.
- Bandwagon: see Appeal to Common Belief
- Begging the Question: Circular
reasoning to prove assumed premise.
- Biased Sample: see Unrepresentative
- Bifurcation: see False Dilemma
- Black and White Thinking: see Excluded
- Burden of proof: see Argument from Ignorance
Butterfly Logic: How
people often argue.
- Canceling Hypotheses: see Conspiracy
- Chicken and Egg argument: see Begging the
- Circular Definition: see Begging the
- Circular Reasoning: see Begging the
- Circulus in Demonstrando: see Begging the
- Circumstantial Ad Hominem: see Attack the person
- Complex Question: two questions, one
- Composition: Generalizing from a few to the
- Concretism: see Reification
- Consequences: see Appeal to Fear
- Conspiracy Theory: Reframe refutation
as further proof.
- Converse Accident: see Hasty
- Cum Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc: see False Cause
- Denying the Antecedent: If A then B.
A is false, so B is false.
- Destroying the Exception: see Accident
- Dicto Simpliciter: see Accident
- Discredit: see Poisoning the Well
- Division: Assuming the parts have the
characteristics of the whole.
- Double Bind: see Complex Question
Ecological fallacy: Conclusion about individual
from group data.
fallacy: Conclusions about group from individual data.
- Either/Or: see False Dilemma
- Emphasis: see Accent
- Equivocation: A single word with more than
- Excluded Middle: Only extreme views are
- Fallacy of Exclusion: see
- False Analogy: X has property Y. Z is like
X. So Z has property Y.
- False Cause: A causes B (but no proof).
- False Compromise: Extreme views are
wrong. The middle way is right.
- False Dichotomy: see False Dilemma or
- False Dilemma: Choice is A or B. Rejecting
A is selecting B.
- False Division: see Division
- False Effect: A is assumed to cause B. B is
proven wrong, so A is wrong.
- False Metaphor: see False Analogy
- False Question: see Complex Question
- Faulty Induction: see Composition
- Faulty Deduction: see Division
- Four Terms: All A is B. All C is D. So all A
- From Ignorance: see Argument from ignorance
- Gambler's Fallacy: Chance can be
- Generalization: see Composition
- Hasty Generalization: Generalizing
from too-small a sample.
- Hasty Induction: see Hasty
- Hypostatisation: see Reification
- Ignorance of Refutation: see Missing the Point
- Ignoratio Elenchi: see Missing the Point
- Illicit Major: All X is Y. No P (which is a subset of Y) is X. Therefore no P is Y.
- Illicit Minor: All X are Y. All X are P.
Therefore all P are Y.
- In a Certain Respect and Simply:
Extending assumed boundaries too far.
- Inconsistency: see Logical
- Inductive Generalization: see Hasty
- Insignificance: Making a minor cause seem
- Insufficient Sample: see Hasty
- Insufficient Statistics: see Hasty
- In Terrorem: see Appeal to Fear
- Irrelevant Conclusion: see Missing the Point
- Leaping to Conclusion: see Hasty
- Loaded Question: see Complex Question
- Logical Inconsistency: Arguments
that contradict one another.
- Lonely Fact: see Hasty
- Many Questions: overloading them with
lots of questions.
- Misleading Vividness: a memorable
few events prove high probability.
- Misplaced Concreteness: see Reification
- Missing the Point: Drawing the wrong
- Nagging: see Repetition
- Non Causa Pro Causa: see False Effect
- Non Sequitur: See Affirming the
Consequent, Denying the Antecedent or
Missing the Point.
- Petitio Principii: see Begging the Question
- Personal Inconsistency: Past
words or deeds do not match claim.
- Plurium Interrogationum: see Many Questions
- Poisoning the Well: Discrediting the
person before they speak.
- Polarization: see Excluded Middle
- Post Hoc: X follows Y. Therefore X is caused by
- Post hoc, ergo propter hoc: see Post Hoc
- Questionable Cause: see False Cause
- Reasoning in a Circle: see Begging the
- Red Herring: Distracting with an
Reductio ad Absurdum: A false X is silly, so X is
- Reification: Treating a concept as concrete
- Repetition: Repeating something makes it more
- Scare Tactics: see Appeal to Fear
- Secundum quid et simpliciter: see In a
Certain Respect and Simply
- Slippery Slope: Loosely connected statements
with ridiculous conclusion.
- Social Conformance: Agree with me or
be socially isolated.
- Splitting the Difference: see False
- Statistical Generalization: see Hasty
- Strawman: Attack a weak argument used by the
- Style over Substance: An attractive
presentation makes it more right.
- Sweeping Generalization: see Accident
- Undistributed Middle: All A is B.
All C is B. Therefore all C is A.
- Unrepresentative Sample: What is
true about any sample is also true about the population.
- Value of Community: see Appeal to Common Belief
- Weak Analogy: see False Analogy
- Wishful Thinking: A is true because I
want it to be true.
- You too: See Personal Inconsistency
Unique alphabetic list of Fallacies
Fallacies in Latin
Aristotle's 13 fallacies