Fallacies: alphabetic list (unique)
> Argument > Fallacies alphabetic list
Fallacies are statements that are logically false, but which often appear to
be true. Here iare most of the known fallacies, in alphabetic order (see also
the Full alphabetic list of Fallacies to
see the alternative names that are also used):
- Accent: Emphasis that changes the meaning of the
- Accident: A general rule used to explain a
specific case not covered by it.
- Affirming the Consequent: If A then
B. B is true, so A is true.
- Amphiboly: A sentence has two different
Anger: Using anger as a weapon.
- Appeal to Authority: Referencing an
- Appeal to Common Belief: If others believe
it to be true, it must be true.
- Appeal to Common Practice: If others do
it, it must be ok to do it too.
- Appeal to Fear: Gaining compliance through
Flattery: Make them feel good.
- Appeal to Emotion: If it feels good, it
must be true.
- Appeal to Novelty: Newer is better.
- Appeal to Pity: Going for the sympathy vote.
- Appeal to Ridicule: Mocking the other
Appeal to Spite: Play on their negative feelings
- Appeal to Tradition: It has always been
done this way, so this way is right.
Appeal to Trust: Trust me, I'm a doctor.
- Argument from Ignorance: Accepting
- Assertion: What I say is true.
- Attack the Person:
Distracting them from their argument.
- Begging the Question: Circular
reasoning to prove assumed premise.
Butterfly Logic: How
people often argue.
- Complex Question: two questions, one
- Composition: Generalizing from a few to the
- Conspiracy Theory: Reframe refutation
as further proof.
- Denying the Antecedent: If A then B.
A is false, so B is false.
- Division: Assuming the parts have the
characteristics of the whole.
Ecological fallacy: Conclusion about individual
from group data.
- Equivocation: A single word with more than
fallacy: Conclusions about group from individual data.
- Excluded Middle: Only extreme views are
- False Analogy: X has property Y. Z is like
X. So Z has property Y.
- False Cause: A causes B (but no proof).
- False Compromise: Extreme views are
wrong. The middle way is right.
- False Effect: A is assumed to cause B. B is
proven wrong, so A is wrong.
- False Dilemma: Choice is A or B. Rejecting
A is selecting B.
- Four Terms: All A is B. All C is D. So all A
- Gambler's Fallacy: Chance can be
- Hasty Generalization: Generalizing
from too-small a sample.
- Illicit Major: All X is Y. No P (which is a subset of Y) is X. Therefore no P is Y.
- Illicit Minor: All X are Y. All X are P.
Therefore all P are Y.
- In a Certain Respect and Simply:
Extending assumed boundaries too far.
- Insignificance: Making a minor cause seem
- Logical Inconsistency: Arguments
that contradict one another.
- Many Questions: overloading them with
lots of questions.
- Misleading Vividness: a memorable
few events prove high probability.
- Missing the Point: Drawing the wrong
- Personal Inconsistency: Past
words or deeds do not match claim.
- Poisoning the Well: Discrediting the
person before they speak.
- Post Hoc: X follows Y. Therefore X is caused by
- Red Herring: Distracting with an
Reductio ad Absurdum: A false X is silly, so X is
- Reification: Treating a concept as
- Repetition: Repeating something makes it more
- Slippery Slope: Loosely connected statements
with ridiculous conclusion.
- Social Conformance: Agree with me or
be socially isolated.
- Strawman: Attack a weak argument used by the
- Style over Substance: An attractive
presentation makes it more right.
- Undistributed Middle: All A is B.
All C is B. Therefore all C is A.
- Unrepresentative Sample: What is
true about any sample is also true about the population.
- Wishful Thinking: A is true because I
want it to be true.
Full alphabetic list of Fallacies
Fallacies in Latin